Menu

You are here

Home » Enterprise Technology Dictionary » Find Terms by Theme » Find Terms by Theme: Enterprise Architecture

Find Terms by Theme: Enterprise Architecture

Access

Definition:

The ability to use, modify, or affect an IT system or to gain entry to a physical area or location.

Accounts Payable

Definition:
Amounts owed to private persons or organizations for goods and/or services received by the state. Accounts Payable does not include amounts due to other agencies, funds, or other governments
Context:
Business Functions

Accounts Receivable

Definition:
Amounts due from private persons or organizations for goods, and/or services furnished by the state. Accounts Receivable does not include amounts due from other agencies, funds, or other governments
Context:
Business Functions

Application

Definition:

A computer program or set of programs that meet a defined set of business needs.  A program or group of programs designed for end users. These programs are divided into two classes: system software and application software. While system software consists of low-level programs that interact with computers at a basic level, application software resides above system software and includes applications such as database programs, word processors and spreadsheets. Application software may be grouped along with system software or published alone. For the purposes of integration applications consume an integration service such as a web service or API.

Application Integration

Definition:
Enterprise application integration EAI use of software and computer systems architectural principles to integrate a set of enterprise computer applications, furthermore, the process of keeping redundant copies of data (in independently designed applications) consistent, or enabling end-users to access data and functionality from independently designed applications on a single user interface.
Context:
Integration

Application Programming Interface

Definition:
A set of protocols, routines, functions and/or commands that programmers use to develop software or facilitate interaction between distinct systems. APIs are available for both desktop and mobile use, and are typically useful for programming graphic user interface components, as well as allowing a software program to request and accommodate services from another program. This definition explicitly excludes any "API" that relies on local binding (e.g. via loading a DLL) to function.
Context:
Integration

Application System

Definition:

An interconnected set of IT resources under the same direct management control that meets a defined set of business needs.

Appointment Change

Definition:
An action that indicates a change to an employee's appointment within the agency or movement of an employee between different agencies without a break in service - may include but not limited to movement to another position, adjustment of hours worked, changes from salaried to hourly, or reallocation of a position
Context:
Business Functions

Assistive Technology Services

Definition:
Assistive Technology Services is composed of hardware and software that help people who are physically or visually impaired, as well as ensuring electronic and information technology is accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public (i.e. 508 Compliant). This includes developing standards for all electronic and information technology.
Topic(s):
Context:
IT Business Function

Attack

Definition:

An attempt to bypass security controls on an IT system in order to compromise the data.

Audio / Video Conferencing

Definition:
Audio / Video Conferencing entails communication across long distances with audio and / or video contact that may also include graphics and data exchange and includes all equipment, software, hardware, networks, etc. necessary to perform these functions.
Context:
IT Business Function

Audit Trail Capture and Analysis

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the identification and monitoring of activities within an application, system, or network
Context:
IT Business Function

Authentication

Definition:

The process of ensuring the identity of a connected user or participants exchanging electronic data.

Benefits Management

Definition:
Advantage, privilege, right, or financial reimbursement (such as that made under an insurance policy, medical plan, or pension plan)
Context:
Business Functions

Budgetary Control

Definition:
The control or management of a governmental unit in accordance with an approved budget for the purpose of keeping expenditures within the limitations of available appropriations and available revenues.
Context:
Business Functions

Budgeting

Definition:
A plan of financial operation embodying an estimate of proposed expenditures for a given period of time or purpose and the proposed means of financing them.
Context:
Business Functions

Business Analytics

Definition:
Business analytics includes all forms of data analysis of extremely large, complex data sets (big data) that are manipulated for business (mission) consumption
Context:
IT Business Function

Business Application / System

Definition:

An application or system which has a direct impact on the delivery of services to department/agency employees, clients or consumers.

Business Continuity

Definition:

The activities performed by the agency to ensure critical functions are available to entities needing access to those functions.  Business continuity is related to restoring normal day-to-day functions in the event of service disruptions. Business continuity planning is different than disaster recovery planning.

Context:
Disaster Recovery

Capital Asset Management / Fixed Asset Management

Definition:
The Management of tangible or intangible assets held and used in state operations, which have a service life of more than one year and meet the state's capitalization policy. Capital assets of the state include land, infrastructure, and improvements to land, buildings, leasehold improvements, vehicles, furnishings, equipment, collections, and all other tangible and intangible assets that are used in state operations
Topic(s):
Context:
Business Functions

Cash Flows

Definition:
The cash receipts and cash payments of a government during a period. It categorizes cash activity as resulting from operating, noncapital financing, capital financing and investing activities
Context:
Business Functions

Certification and Accreditation

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the certification and accreditation (C&A) of federal information systems, as described in NIST SP800-37.
Context:
IT Business Function

Collaboration Tools

Definition:
The Tools or systems that allow multiple parties to interact and share documents or data through a shared work space or environment. Multiple parties contribute or update the shared environment and view, update, edit, & share files. This includes systems such as SharePoint, MAX, Web Conferencing, Cisco TelePresence, etc.)
Context:
IT Business Function

Community Management

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the administration of online groups that share common interests
Context:
IT Business Function

Continuity of Operations

Definition:
Continuity of Operations involves the activities associated with the identification of critical systems and processes, and the planning and preparation required to ensure that these systems and processes will be available in the event of a catastrophic event and involves the internal actions necessary to develop a plan for resuming operations after a catastrophic event occurs. This can include Contingency Planning, Continuity of Operations and Service Recovery work.
Context:
IT Business Function

Continuity of Operations Planning

Definition:

The effort to ensure that mission-essential functions continue to be performed during a wide range of emergencies which could be localized or widespread.

Context:
Disaster Recovery

Continuous Monitoring

Definition:
Continuous Monitoring includes all activities related to the real-time monitoring of security controls employed within or inherited by a system. (see Appendix G of NIST Special Publication 800-37)
Context:
IT Business Function

Contracting

Definition:
Activities related to obtaining goods or services from sources, including the decision to contract, description of goods/services, solicitation of sources, contractor screening and selection, contract preparation, contract monitoring, auditing and post-contract follow-up
Context:
Business Functions

Correspondence Management

Definition:
Correspondence Management is the set of capabilities used to manage externally initiated and internally initiated communication between an organization and its stakeholders.
Context:
IT Business Function

Cost Accounting/ Activity Based Costing (ABC)

Definition:
A method of accounting which provides for accumulating and recording of all the elements of cost incurred to accomplish a purpose, to carry on an activity or operation, or to complete a unit of work or a specific job. Cost accounting approach concerned with matching costs with activities (called cost drivers) that cause those costs. It is a more sophisticated kind of absorption-costing and replaces labor based costing system. ABC states that (1) products consume activities, (2) it is the activities (and not the products) that consume resources, (3) activities are the cost drivers, and (4) that activities are not necessarily based on the volume of production. Instead of allocating costs to cost centers (such as service delivery, marketing, finance), ABC allocates direct and indirect costs to activities such as processing an order, attending to a customer complaint, or delivering a service
Context:
Business Functions

Cost Estimate

Definition:
The sum established by the agency/institution as available for the entire project, including the construction budget, acquisition costs, furnishings and equipment, compensation for professional services and all contingencies. The cost estimate is used to develop capital project budgets
Context:
Business Functions

Cost Management and Control

Definition:
Management of cost related activities achieved by collecting, analyzing, evaluating, and reporting cost information used for budgeting, estimating, forecasting, and monitoring costs. Cost control typically includes (1) investigative procedures to detect variance of actual costs from budgeted costs, (2) diagnostic procedures to ascertain the cause(s) of variance, and (3) corrective procedures to effect realignment between actual and budgeted costs
Context:
Business Functions

Covered Technology

Definition:

All public-facing content, including websites, applications, documents and media, blog posts, and social media content. Certain non-public-facing content that must also comply. Examples include: All electronic content used for official business to communicate: emergency notifications, initial or final decisions adjudicating administrative claims or proceedings, internal or external program or policy announcements, notices of benefits, program eligibility, employment opportunities or personnel actions, formal acknowledgements or receipts, questionnaires or surveys, templates or forms, educational or training materials, and web-based intranets.

Credential Issuance and Management

Definition:
Credential Issuance and Management: the researching, tracking and providing of user access credentials (logical and physicals) and associated security features for the protection of federal information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruptions, modification, or destruction, as well as the creation and implementation of related security policies, procedures and controls. This includes background checks and related personnel security management services.
Context:
IT Business Function

Critical Issue

Definition:

A known system defect or enhancement request that if left unresolved could significantly impact business operations, compliance with statute or policy, the integrity of the system or data or otherwise create a public health, safety or other significant risk areas.

Cryptography

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the use and management of ciphers, including encryption and decryption processes, to ensure confidentiality and integrity of data
Context:
IT Business Function

Customer Services

Definition:
Customer Services supports activities associated with providing an agency's customers with information regarding the agency's service offerings and managing the interactions and relationships with those customers.
Context:
IT Business Function

Data Center

Definition:

Data Centers are facilities that house and protect critical IT equipment supporting delivery of government services including the space, power, environment controls, racks, cabling and external labor. 

We distinguish between Agency Data Centers, and the State Data Centers because by statute we are directed to migrate TO the State Data Center and away from Agency Data Centers.

State Data Centers include:

  • The Olympia-based State Data Center (SDC) operated by Consolidated Technology Services (CTS)
  • The Quincy-based Disaster Recovery Services Data Center leased by CTS.
  • Other Facilities such as Computer rooms and MDF/IDF/telco closets that house IT equipment primarily supporting local building operations in corporate headquarters, call centers or other general purpose office buildings.

NOTE: This definition is used in the TBM program and also reside in Standard 113.30: TBM Taxonomy.

Context:
Technology Business Management, Policies and Standards

Data Exchange

Definition:
Supports the interchange of information between multiple systems and applications; includes verification that transmitted data was received unaltered.
Context:
IT Business Function

Data Integration

Definition:
The practices, architectural techniques and tools for achieving the consistent access and delivery of data across the spectrum of data subject areas and data structure types in the enterprise to meet the data consumption requirements of all applications and business processes.
Context:
Integration

Data Integrity and Privacy Management

Definition:
Data Integrity and Privacy Management involves the coordination of data collection, storage, dissemination, and destruction as well as managing the policies, guidelines, and standards regarding data management, so that data quality is maintained and information is shared or available in accordance with the law and best practices
Context:
IT Business Function

Data Mining

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to provide for the efficient discovery of non-obvious, valuable patterns and relationships within a large collection of data
Context:
IT Business Function

Data Recovery

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the restoration and stabilization of data sets to a consistent, desired state
Context:
IT Business Function

Data Warehouse

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the archiving and storage of large volumes of data
Context:
IT Business Function

Deprecation

Definition:
Act of including Formal notification of the intent to retire some or all components of an Integration service such as API or web service, made some period ahead of time in order to allow consumers the opportunity to update consuming applications.
Context:
Integration

Developer Portal

Definition:
A user-facing web interface that provides a list of available APIs and is a repository for: Documentation, Example requests and output, Specifications Interactive tools (test client) Terms of use Contact information
Context:
Integration

Diversity Management

Definition:
Understanding the relationship between individual attitudes, behaviors, and employment practices - includes equal employment opportunity to ensure equal access and opportunity to anyone who qualifies and affirmative action reporting and practices to create an inclusive work environment
Context:
Business Functions

Document Management and workflow

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the creation, use, archiving and deletion of unstructured data. This includes the set of capabilities to support the design, generation and maintenance of electronic or physical forms and templates
Context:
IT Business Function

Email

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the transmission of communications over a network. Includes instant messaging
Context:
IT Business Function

End of Support

Definition:

The latest date a manufacturer will provide security patches.  Some manufacturers have an end of mainstream support date and an extended end-of support date.  In these cases, after the end of mainstream support, no additional software feature/function enhancements or fixes are issued but security patches are until the end of extended support.  The recommended best practice is to migrate before end of mainstream support.

Context:
Policies and Standards

Enterprise Architecture

Definition:

Enterprise Architecture is an established process for describing the current state and defining the target state and transition strategy for an organization's people, processes, and technology.

RCW 43.105.20 (5): "Enterprise architecture" means an ongoing activity for translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change. It is a continuous activity. Enterprise architecture creates, communicates, and improves the key principles and models that describe the enterprise's future state and enable its evolution.

Context:
IT Business Function

Enterprise Licenses and Software

Definition:
Enterprise Licenses and Software includes License Management and Software Distribution; it supports the purchase, upgrade and tracking of legal usage contracts for system software and applications and supports the propagation, installation and upgrade of written computer programs, applications and components.
Context:
IT Business Function

Enterprise Risk Management

Definition:
Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) is the discipline of managing risk throughout an agency. Processes include conducting a risk assessment, identifying root causes of identified risks, prioritizing the risks on an enterprise level, determining which risk treatments best address the root causes, and then monitoring the success of the risk treatments. Treatments can include: Transferring the risk, minimizing the likelihood and/or impact of a negative outcome, and eliminating the activity associated with the risk
Context:
Business Functions

Enterprise Search

Definition:
Enterprise Search includes Query capabilities, Precision / Recall Ranking, Classification and Pattern Matching
Context:
IT Business Function

Environmental Security

Definition:

Physical protection against damage from fire, flood, wind, earthquake, explosion, civil unrest and other forms of natural and man-made risk.

Extensible Markup Language

Definition:
A simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML. Originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is also playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere.
Context:
Integration

Extranet / VPN Connection

Definition:

Network-level access originating from outside the network. Examples include SSL, IPSec, “terminal service” or Citrix-like connections.

File Transfer

Definition:
Is the process of copying or moving a file from one computer to another over a network or Internet connection. It enables sharing, transferring or transmitting a file or a logical data object between different users and/or computers both locally and remotely.
Context:
Integration

File Transfer Protocol with SSL Security

Definition:
An extension to the FTP protocol that adds Secure Socket Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS)-based mechanisms/capabilities on a standard FTP connection. It mainly enables performing or delivering standard FTP communication on top of an SSL-based security connection. FTPS is also known as FTP Secure.

Firewall

Definition:

A combination of hardware and software designed to control the types of network connections allowed to a system or combination of systems or that enforces a boundary between 2 or more networks.

Flexible Work

Definition:
Flexible work is an alternative schedule that allows full-time employees to eliminate at least one work day every two weeks by working longer hours during the remaining days, resulting in less commute trips (compressed workweek), or allows the employees some flexibility in starting and ending times outside the agency's normal work hours (flextime) consistent with WAC 357-28-225
Context:
Business Functions

General Ledger

Definition:
A ledger containing the accounts in which are recorded, in detail or in summary, all transactions of the state
Context:
Business Functions

General Ledger Reconciliation

Definition:
The process of correlating one set of records with another set of records and/or a physical inventory count that involves identifying, explaining, and correcting differences
Context:
Business Functions

Government Accounting

Definition:
The composite activity of analyzing, recording, summarizing, reporting, and interpreting the financial transactions of a governmental entity
Context:
Business Functions

Grant Management

Context:
Business Functions

Graph QL

Definition:
A query language for APIs and a runtime for fulfilling those queries with your existing data. Graph QL provides a complete and understandable description of the data in your API, gives clients the power to ask for exactly what they need and nothing more, makes it easier to evolve APIs over time, and enables powerful developer tools.
Context:
Integration

Grievance

Definition:
A formal complaint filed by a union on behalf of an employee or group of employees alleging a violation, misapplication or misinterpretation of one or more terms of the parties' collective bargaining agreement.  Note: Collective bargaining agreements vary and a particular agreement may define this term differently
Context:
Business Functions

Help Desk Services

Definition:
Help Desk Services involves the management of a service center to respond to government and contract employees' technical and administrative questions.
Context:
IT Business Function

Hiring

Definition:
The process of onboarding a new employee into Washington state service
Context:
Business Functions

Human Resources

Definition:
The division of an agency or institution focused on activities relating to employees. Activities include recruiting and hiring new employees, growth and development of current employees, employee benefits, workforce planning, and employee retention
Context:
Business Functions

Identification and Authentication

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to support the management of permissions for logging onto a computer, application, service, or network; includes user management and role/privilege management. This includes Identification and Authentication for digital signatures
Context:
IT Business Function

Incident Response

Definition:
Defines the set of capabilities to provide active response and remediation to a security incident that has allowed unauthorized access to a government information system
Context:
IT Business Function

Information Discovery

Definition:
Information Discovery consists of all activities used to obtain information that is not readily obtainable
Context:
IT Business Function

Information Exchange and Transformation

Definition:
Information Exchange and Transformation - The tools and systems used to search, link, analyze, share and transport information such as reports or critical mission data. Transformation includes the set of capabilities to support the removal of incorrect or unnecessary characters and data from a data source
Context:
IT Business Function

Information Mapping / Taxonomy / Categorization

Definition:
Information Mapping/ Taxonomy/ Categorization defines the set of capabilities to support the creation and maintenance of relationships between data entities, naming standards and categorization and allow classification of data and information into specific layers or types to support an organization.
Context:
IT Business Function

Information Technology

Definition:

Per RCW 43.105.020, "Information technology" includes, but is not limited to, all electronic technology systems and services, automated information handling, system design and analysis, conversion of data, computer programming, information storage and retrieval, telecommunications, requisite system controls, simulation, electronic commerce, radio technologies, and all related interactions between people and machines.

Information Technology (IT) Assets

Definition:

The processes, procedures, systems, IT infrastructure, data, and communication capabilities that allow each agency to manage, store, and share information in pursuit of its business mission, including but not limited to:

  • Applications.
  • All data typically associated with IT systems regardless of source (agency, partner, customer, citizen, etc.). 
  • All data typically associated with IT systems regardless of the medium on which it resides (disc, tape, flash drive, cell phone, personal digital assistant, etc.).
  • End-user authentication systems.
  • Hardware (voice, video, radio transmitters and receivers, mainframes, servers, workstations, personal computers, laptops, and all end point equipment).
  • Software (operating systems, application software, middleware, microcode).
  • IT infrastructure (networks, connections, pathways, servers, wireless endpoints).
  • Services (data processing, telecommunications, office automation, and computerized information systems).
  • Telecommunications hardware, software, and networks.
  • Radio frequencies.
  • Data computing and telecommunications facilities.
  • Intelligent control systems such as video surveillance, HVAC, and physical security.

Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure

Definition:

IT infrastructure consists of the equipment, systems, software, and services used in common across an organization, regardless of mission/program/project.  IT Infrastructure also serves as the foundation upon which mission/program/project-specific systems and capabilities are built.  Approaches to provisioning of IT infrastructure vary across organizations, but commonly include capabilities such as Domain Name Server (DNS), Wide Area Network (WAN), and employee locator systems. Additional common capabilities examples include IT security systems, servers, routers, workstations, networked Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, and networked printers (multifunction devices).

Information Technology (IT) Risk Assessment

Definition:

Risk assessment is a process by which to determine what IT Assets exist that require protection, and to understand and document potential risks from IT security failures that may cause loss of information confidentiality, integrity, or availability. The purpose of a risk assessment is to help management create appropriate strategies and controls for stewardship of information assets.

Context:
Information Security

Information Technology System

Definition:
A computer system or set of components for collecting, creating, storing, processing, and distributing/transmitting information, typically including hardware, infrastructure and software, system users, and the information and/or data itself. 
Context:
Integration

Integration Hub

Definition:
A flexible architectural pattern that allows for a reuse and reduction in the number of interfaces, reducing and/or eliminating point-to-point integration.  A hub also allows for centralization of data and functionality.
Context:
Integration

Integration Layer

Definition:
Provides a level of indirection between the consumer of functionality and its provider. A service consumer interacts with the service provider via the Integration Layer. Hence, each service interface is only exposed via the Integration Layer (e.g., ESB), never directly and point-to-point integration is done at the Integration Layer instead of consumers/requestors doing it themselves. Consumers and providers are decoupled; this decoupling allows integration of disparate systems into new solutions.
Context:
Integration

Integration Service Catalog

Definition:
A user-facing web interface that provides a list of available APIs and is a repository for: Documentation, Example requests and output, Specifications Interactive tools (test client) Terms of use Contact information
Context:
Integration

Interface

Definition:
Shared boundary between two functional units, defined by various characteristics pertaining to the functions, physical interconnections, signal exchanges, and other characteristics, as appropriate.
Context:
Integration

Interface Library

Definition:
A user-facing web interface that provides a list of available APIs and is a repository for: Documentation, Example requests and output, Specifications Interactive tools (test client) Terms of use Contact information
Context:
Integration

Internal System or Network

Definition:

An IT system or network designed and intended for use only by state of Washington employees, contractors, and business partners.

Interoperability

Definition:
A business-centric term regarding the interconnection of business processes. Imply exchanges between a range of products, or similar products from several different vendors, or even between past and future revisions of the same product. Interoperability may be developed post-facto, as a special measure between two products, while excluding the rest, by using Open standards.
Context:
Integration

Intrusion Detection Systems

Definition:

Software and/or hardware designed to detect an attack on a network or computer system. A Network IDS (NIDS) is designed to support multiple hosts, whereas a Host IDS (HIDS) is set up to detect illegal actions within the host. Most IDS programs typically use signatures of known cracker attempts to signal an alert. Others look for deviations of the normal routine as indications of an attack.

Intrusion Prevention Systems

Definition:

Software and/or hardware designed to prevent an attack on a network or computer system. An IPS is a significant step beyond an IDS because it stops the attack from damaging or retrieving data. Whereas an IDS passively monitors traffic by sniffing packets off of a switch port, an IPS resides inline like a firewall, intercepting and forwarding packets. It can thus block attacks in real time.

Inventory Control

Definition:
Supervision and management of the supply, storage, and accessibility of items held in inventory to ensure an adequate supply of available material without excessive oversupply, back orders or stock outages
Context:
Business Functions

Inventory Management

Definition:

Inventory costs represent a substantial portion of the total cost of ownership for many organizations. Proper inventory management requires an investment of time and resources. Carrying insufficient inventory may have adverse mission impacts or consequences. Carrying too much inventory ties up capital, is usually inefficient, requires extra storage space, and for items with a limited shelf life may lead to costly disposal actions

Context:
Business Functions

Issue Tracking

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to receive and track user-reported issues and problems in using IT systems, including help desk calls

Context:
IT Business Function

IT Infrastructure Maintenance

Definition:

IT Infrastructure Maintenance involves the planning, design, and maintenance of an IT Infrastructure to effectively support automated needs (i.e. platforms, networks, servers, printers, etc.).

Context:
IT Business Function

IT Strategy and Innovation

Definition:

IT Strategy and Innovation includes all activities outside of normal Strategic Planning that focus on trying new approaches, new systems and thinking about/ planning IT investments in different ways.

Context:
IT Business Function

IT System Development / Integration Support

Definition:

IT System Development / Integration Support includes the software services enabling elements of distributed business applications to interoperate and the software development necessary to facilitate such integration. These elements can share function, content, and communications across heterogeneous computing environments

JavaScript Object Notation

Definition:

A lightweight data-interchange format. It is a language independent text format that is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate.

Context:
Integration

Job Application

Definition:

A form submitted to a potential employer by a potential employee to collect basic information about the applicant such as employment history, education, training, and contact information

Context:
Business Functions

Job Classification

Definition:

A method of identifying and defining job duties and responsibilities

Context:
Business Functions

Knowledge Capture

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to facilitate collection of data and information

Context:
IT Business Function

Knowledge Distribution and Delivery

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to support the transfer of knowledge to the end customer.

Context:
IT Business Function

Malicious Code

Definition:

Software (such as a Trojan horse) that appears to perform a useful or desirable function, but actually gains unauthorized access to system resources or tricks a user into executing other malicious logic.

Malware

Definition:

A general term coined for all forms malicious software including but limited to computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware, crimeware and other malicious and unwanted software.

Management Accounting

Definition:

The process of preparing management reports and accounts that provide accurate and timely financial and statistical information required by managers to make day-to-day and short-term decisions. Unlike financial accounting, which produces annual reports mainly for external stakeholders, management accounting generates monthly or weekly reports for an organization's internal audiences such as department managers and the chief executive officer. These reports typically show the amount of available cash, sales revenue generated, amount of orders in hand, state of accounts payable and accounts receivable, outstanding debts, raw material and inventory, and may also include trend charts, variance analysis, and other statistics

Context:
Business Functions

Mapping / Geospatial

Definition:

Provide for the representation of mapping and geospatial information through the use of attributes such as zip code, country code, elevation, natural features and other spatial measures

Context:
IT Business Function

Meta Data Management

Definition:

Support the maintenance and administration of data that describes data

Context:
IT Business Function

Mobile Device

Definition:

Any hand-portable device capable of text, voice, email, instant messaging (“IM”), photo messaging or other types of data communication. This policy is not meant to apply to: cars, boats, airplanes, laptop computers, desktop computers, unpiloted aerial vehicles (drones), gps receivers, radios

Modularity

Definition:

Modularity refers to the extent to which a software/Web application may be divided into smaller modules. Software modularity indicates that the number of application modules are capable of serving a specified business domain. Allows typical applications to be divided into modules, as well as integration with similar modules, which helps developers use prewritten code. Modules are divided based on functionality, and programmers are not involved with the functionalities of other modules. Thus, new functionalities may be easily programmed in separate modules. It is a practical application of the principle of "Separation of Concerns" by dividing a complex system into simpler and more manageable modules that will work together Modularization can take place in two ways: The Composition or bottom-up approach takes modules and puts them together to form a larger system The alternative approach is to take a complete system and decompose it into its modules. This approach is known as the decomposition or top-down approach. Modules are technically connected to one another. The measure of inter-module relation is known as coupling. Design goals require modules to have low-coupling and high cohesion. Cohesion is a measure of the inter-relatedness of elements (statements, procedures, declarations) within a module. A module is said to have high cohesion if all the elements in the module are strongly connected with one another. Tight coupling of modules makes analysis, understanding, modification and testing of modules difficult. Reuse of modules is also hindered. Modularity enhances the understandability of software systems and change process. Developers need not have to understand the entire system for changes to be made as details are localized into components; modularity separates concerns down to the modules and is thus a direct realization of the principle of "Separation of Concerns"

Context:
Integration

Multi-factor Authentication

Definition:

A security system or mechanism in which more than one form of authentication is implemented to verify the legitimacy of a transaction. In contrast, single factor authentication involves only a UserID/password. 

In 2-factor authentication, the user provides dual means of identification, one of which is typically a physical token, such as a card, and the other of which is typically something memorized, such as a security code. 

Additional authentication methods that can be used in MFA include biometric verification such as keyboard cadence, finger scanning, iris recognition, facial recognition and voice ID. In addition to these methods, device identification software, smart cards, and other electronic devices can be used along with the traditional UserID and password.

Network Device

Definition:

A device available to other computers on a network. Examples include servers, firewalls, routers, switches, workstations, networked Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, and networked printers (multifunction devices).

Open API

Definition:

An open source specification to define a standard, language-agnostic interface to REST APIs which allows both humans and computers to discover and understand the capabilities of the service without access to source code, documentation, or through network traffic inspection. When properly defined, a consumer can understand and interact with the remote service with a minimal amount of implementation logic.

Context:
Integration

Payroll

Definition:

The administration of employee compensation and benefits on a scheduled basis through a centralized payment system

Context:
Business Functions

Penetration Test

Definition:

A deliberate probe of a network or system to discover security weaknesses. The test attempts to leverage identified weaknesses to penetrate into the organization. The test exploits the vulnerabilities uncovered during a vulnerability assessment to avoid false positives often reported by automated assessment tools.

Performance Audit

Definition:

A systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding the performance of an organization, program, function, or activity. Evaluation is made in terms of its economy and efficiency of operations and effectiveness in achieving desired goals. The performance audit function provides an independent review of management's performance and the degree to which actual performance meets pre-stated goals

Context:
Business Functions

Performance Budgeting

Definition:

The act of considering and making funding choices based on desired outcomes. Performance budgeting focuses on the results to be gained through investment decisions.

Context:
Business Functions

Physical Security

Definition:

Physical security describes measures that prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility, resource, or information stored on physical media in an IT facility.

Planning

Definition:

Analysis and evaluation of the ways in which material requirements can be met using a life cycle management approach

Context:
Business Functions

Portfolio Management

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to support the administration of a group of investments held by an organization

Context:
IT Business Function

Process Tracking

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to manage business processes, including business process mapping, remapping, reengineering, and business process improvement efforts

Context:
IT Business Function

Procurement

Definition:

The process of obtaining or buying goods and services consistent with RCW 39.26 with the intent to Purchase. Purchasing, renting, leasing, or otherwise acquiring any supplies or services; includes all functions that pertain to the acquisition, including description of requirements, selection, and solicitation of sources, preparation and award of contract, and all phases of contract administration. The combined functions of purchasing, inventory control, traffic and transportation, receiving, inspection, storekeeping, salvage, and disposal operations

Context:
Business Functions

Program / Project Management

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to manage and control a particular effort of an organization. This includes intra-agency work.

Context:
IT Business Function

Purchasing

Definition:

The acquisition of goods or services, including the leasing or renting of goods

Context:
Business Functions

Recruitment

Definition:

The process of finding and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job opening in a timely and cost effective manner. The recruitment process includes analyzing the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening and selecting applicants, hiring, and integrating the new employee to the organization - recruitment measures include tracking time to hire/fill, candidate quality, and applicant satisfaction

Context:
Business Functions

Representational State Transfer API

Definition:

A distributed system framework that uses Web protocols and technology. The REST architecture involves client and server interactions build around the transfer of resources. Systems that conform to REST principles are referred to as RESTful.

Context:
Integration

Resilient

Definition:

The capability of remaining or returning to a normal situation after an event by having multiple ways of performing a function.  This may include people, processes or technology.  Generally speaking, this means there would be no single point of failure that could stop a process.

Context:
Disaster Recovery

Retirement

Definition:

Separation of an employee who meets the age and service requirements to receive retirement benefits and has filed an application for retirement with the Department of Retirement Systems - includes tracking and/or managing an employee's retirement eligibility status throughout the life cycle of an employee's career

Context:
Business Functions

Scheduling

Definition:

The days and hours an employee is scheduled to work

Context:
Business Functions

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) (FTP over SSH)

Definition:

A secure version of File Transfer Protocol (FTP), which facilitates data access and data transfer over a Secure Shell (SSH) data stream. It is part of the SSH Protocol. This term is also known as SSH File Transfer Protocol.

Context:
Integration

Secure Segmentation

Definition:

Secure segmentation is defined as implementing methods that allow for secure communication between various levels of segmented environments. These environments typically involve 4 basic segment groups:

  1. Outside (Trust no one)
  2. Services (Trust limited to defined segmentation lines)
  3. Internal (Trust limited to defined group)
  4. External users (Trust limited to defined group)

The methods for securing these segments may include but are not limited to firewall and switch/router configurations and router/switch ACLs.

Security Controls

Definition:

The security requirements and methods applied by agencies to manage IT security risk including but not limited those defined in the OCIO IT security standards.

Security Domain

Definition:

An environment or context that is defined by security policy, a security model, or security architecture to include a set of system resources and the set of system entities that have the right to access the resources.

Separation / Termination

Definition:

The voluntary or involuntary act of leaving Washington State service

Context:
Business Functions

Service Consumer (Consumer)

Definition:

A requestor that consumes or uses an automated IT Service provided by a Service Provider. Entities (systems, people, and organizations) that needs to make use of services offered by providers.

Synonyms:
Context:
Integration

Service Metadata

Definition:

Computer application readable description of capabilities, requirements, general characteristics, abstract message operations, concrete network protocols, endpoint addresses, and structure and content of messages received by and sent by the service.

Context:
Integration

Service Orchestration

Definition:

The coordination and arrangement of multiple services exposed as a single aggregate service. Developers utilize service orchestration to support the automation of business processes by loosely coupling services across different applications and enterprises and creating "second-generation," composite applications. In other words, service orchestration is the combination of service interactions to create higher-level business services.

Context:
Integration

Service Oriented Architecture

Definition:

Style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network. The basic principles of service-oriented architecture are independent of vendors, products and technologies. A service is a discrete unit of functionality that can be accessed remotely and acted upon and updated independently, such as retrieving a credit card statement online. According to TOGAF, under the terms of an SOA, a service has four properties: It logically represents a business activity with a specified outcome. It is self-contained. It is a black box for its consumers. It may consist of other underlying services.

Context:
Integration

Service Providers (Provider)

Definition:

Entities (systems, people, and organizations) that offer capabilities and act as service providers. An authoritative/trusted organization that offers an automated IT Service to a Service Consumer by means of one of its Provided Service Interfaces.

Context:
Integration

Service Reusability

Definition:

A service-oriented architecture design principle for creating services that can be used for business purposes beyond those initially specified in requirements. Reusable services are designed so their solution logic is independent of any particular business process or technology.

Context:
Integration

Simple Object Access Protocol API

Definition:

A protocol for implementing Web Services. SOAP features guidelines that allow communication via the Internet between two programs, even if they run on different platforms, use different technologies and are written in different programming languages.

Context:
Integration

SOA Backplane

Definition:

Shared, common infrastructure for lifecycle management such as a services registry, policies, business analytics; routing/addressing, quality of service, communication; Development Tools for security, management, and adapters.

Context:
Integration

SOA-based Services

Definition:

Modular, swappable functions, separate from, yet connected to an application via well-defined interfaces to provide agility. Often referred to as 'services' they: Perform granular business functions such as "get customer address" or larger ones such as 'process payment.' Are loosely coupled to a new or existing application. Have capability to perform the steps, tasks and activities of one or more business processes. Can be combined to perform a set of functions - referred to as 'orchestration.'

Context:
Integration

Strategic Workforce Planning

Definition:

Strategic workforce planning looks at system-wide issues and strategies to: Support the organization's strategic plan (e.g., reorganization and redeployment) Address external workforce factors that affect the entire business (e.g., succession planning for retirement bubbles, or staff reduction planning for budget cuts). Maintain organizational capacity (e.g., in-service training) Mitigate risk exposure (e.g., safety planning and Equal Employment Opportunity training)

Context:
Business Functions

Succession Planning

Definition:

The specific staffing strategies designed to develop an internal pool for anticipated vacancies

Context:
Business Functions

Supporting Organization(s) Processes

Definition:

For the purpose of go live readiness, supporting organizations include the agency(s) and any vendor(s) who are involved in operations and support of the ongoing system/investment. Processes include any unique to the time immediately after go-live as well as those on-going processes required to effectively operate and maintain the system/investment once it is implemented into production.

Context:
Go Live Readiness

System and Network Monitoring

Definition:

System and Network Monitoring supports all activities related to the realtime monitoring of systems and networks for optimal performance.

Context:
IT Business Function

System Resource Usage

Definition:

Support the balance and allocation of memory, usage, disk space and performance on computers and their applications.

Context:
IT Business Function

Telework

Definition:

Telework is the practice of working from home or other alternative locations closer to home through the use of technology which allows the employee to access normal work material (email, telephone, electronic documents, etc.). Telework may be scheduled or done on an ad hoc basis.

Context:
Business Functions

Threat and Vulnerability Management

Definition:

Threat and Vulnerability Management involves all functions pertaining to the protection of federal information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruptions, modification, or destruction, as well as the creation and implementation of security policies, procedures and controls. It includes all risk and controls tracking for IT systems.

Context:
IT Business Function

Time and Attendance

Definition:

The process of submitting, approving, and adjusting an employee's work hours and planned/unplanned leave hours

Context:
Business Functions

Training/Development

Definition:

Training is activities designed to develop employees' job-related knowledge and skills for present job assignments as well as future career development goals.  The enterprise level administrative function is the maintenance of training records for state employees.

Context:
Business Functions

Travel Management

Definition:

Activities associated with planning, preparing, and monitoring of business related travel for an organization's employees

Context:
Business Functions

Trusted Agency, System or Network

Definition:

An IT system or network that is recognized automatically as reliable, truthful, and accurate without continual validation or testing.

Untrusted

Definition:

Characterized by absence of trusted status. Assumed to be unreliable, untruthful, and inaccurate unless proven otherwise.

Vendor Management

Definition:

The management of an entity selling a good or service to the State.  Vendors include, but are not limited to, retail businesses, consultants, contractors, manufacturers, credit card companies.  A vendor may be an individual, corporation, non-profit organization, federal government, or federal agency, local government or local agency, another state or another state agency, a Washington state agency, or Indian nation.  For travel reimbursement purposes, a vendor may include an employee, a board member, or volunteer

Context:
Business Functions

Voice Communications

Definition:

Defines the set of capabilities to provide telephony or other voice communications

Context:
IT Business Function

Vulnerability

Definition:

Relates to risk of attack. In IT terms, vulnerability describes points of risk to penetration of security barriers. Awareness of potential vulnerability is very important to designing ever more effective defenses against attack by unauthorized parties.

Vulnerability Assessment

Definition:

A comprehensive analysis that attempts to define, identify, and classify the security holes (vulnerabilities) in a system, network, or communications infrastructure within the assessment scope.

Web Infrastructure

Definition:

Web Infrastructure includes equipment/services to support delivery of services over the Internet or similar networks. These include supporting: Network Services which consists of protocols defining the format and structure of data and information either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications; Service Transport which consists of protocols defining the format and structure of data and information either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications.

Context:
IT Business Function

Web Service

Definition:

A software service used to communication between two devices on a network. More specifically, a Web service is a software application with a standardized way of providing interoperability between disparate applications. It does so over HTTP using technologies such as XML, SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI.

Context:
Integration

Web Services Description Language

Definition:

An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly, and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint.

Context:
Integration

Web Services Federation Language

Definition:

An OASIS specification that defines mechanisms to allow different security realms to federate, such that authorized access to resources managed in one realm can be provided to security principles whose identities and attributes are managed in other realms. This includes mechanisms for brokering of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization assertions between realms, and privacy of federated claims.

Context:
Integration

Web Services Security

Definition:

An OASIS specification that proposes a standard set of SOAP extensions that can be used when building secure Web services to implement message content integrity and confidentiality.

Context:
Integration

Wellness and Safety Information

Definition:

Ensuring the safety and health of employees within the workplace

Context:
Business Functions